Types of outcomes and indicators measured in a survey(go to Outline)
As can be seen in this example, surveys can gather data to calculate:
Prevalence is the proportion of the population which has a specific disease at a single point in time. Because survey data are collected at a single point in time, surveys are especially good a measuring prevalence. In general, prevalence is used to measure the occurrence of chronic diseases or diseases which last a long time.
Prevalences frequently measured in health and nutrition assessment surveys in humanitarian emergencies include:
- The prevalence of acute protein-energy malnutrition among children 6-59 months of age
- The prevalence of malnutrition among non-pregnant women of child-bearing age
- The prevalence of households having a safe water supply
- The prevalence of households having adequate sanitation facilities
Program coverage is the proportion of individuals who are eligible for a program or service who actually receive the program or service.
Some examples of programme coverage measured in health and nutrition assessment surveys include:
- Vaccination coverage (see section on estimates of vaccination coverage)
- Coverage of targeted supplemental feeding programmes
- Coverage of health services, as measured by frequency of use of health facilities
Incidence rate is the rate at which new cases of disease occur in a specified population during a defined time period. Note that only new cases of disease are counted.
Some incidence rates frequently measured in health and nutrition assessment surveys include:
- The incidence rate of death, also called the crude mortality rate
- The cumulative incidence rate of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age