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Water supply, sanitation, and shelter - Indicators

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The indicators discussed in this section apply most easily to camp situations where a displaced population is grouped together and services are supplied by the host government or local or international organizations. Although the minimum standards discussed in Sphere apply equally to all disaster and emergency-affected populations, these indicators, especially those relying on program data, may be less easily measured in displaced populations integrated into a local population. Those indicators measured by surveys or other data collection methods may not be difficult to measure in the combined host and displaced population, and such assessments should be done.

This module's discussion of indicators and recommendations will mostly cite the Sphere Project manual (click here to open document)because it is the result of an extensive consensus process and has widely been accepted as the minimum standards for emergency relief. Moreover, the Sphere Project manual is meant for all organizations responding to disasters and humanitarian emergencies. Other manuals are often targeted specifically to the staff of the organization publishing the manual.