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Micronutrient deficiencies may also be important in an emergency-affected population. In fact, they can cause a large proportion of deaths in children and adults in populations after the acute phase of the emergency when infectious diseases and acute malnutrition are under relative control.
Relief food supplied to food-aid dependent population is almost always deficient in several micronutrients, including the three which cause the most common deficiencies, that is iron, vitamin A, and iodine. Many outbreaks of otherwise rare micronutrient deficiencies, such as scurvy (vitamin C deficiency), pellagra (niacin deficiency), beriberi (thiamine deficiency), and others, have occurred in such populations.